My Illlustrated Travel Journal with Essays about Roman and Mediaeval History and some Geology
A Trace of Spring in Dovrefjell - From Trondheim to Oslo by Train
Researching the convoluted history of the Honour of Richmond takes a bit more time than I thought, so here is a landscape post to go in between the Yorkshire castles I visited in 2013. I took the train from Trondheim to Oslo mid-April 2011 after the Hurtigruten voyage and managed to take some photos out of the moving train. The usual caveat for pictures taken out of a train or bus applies: there might be some reflections from the windows and slight blurs.
I traveled the Dovre Railway in the 'wrong' direction. When it was built, the first stage covered the way from Oslo to Eidsvoll and was the first railway in Norway (1854). The line was then built in bits and parts. The stretch between Søren and Trondheim dates to 1864, followed the connections between Eidsvoll - Hamar - Lillehammer etc., while the last part from Dombås to Søren - the original Dovre Railway which today gives the name to the entire route - was finished in 1921.
Melting ice on the river Driva
The railway follows the Mediaeval pilgrim's route from Oslo and surroundings to the cathedral and the shrine of St.Olav in Nidaros, as Trondheim was then called. The journey would take several days; the lake Mjøsa was crossed by boat in summer, and in winter the Dovrefjell was sometimes impassable at all. Today the journey takes about 6 hours.
Mountains in the Dovrefjell
The first mountain range some 150 kilometres south of Trondheim is the Kongsvoll (886 metres above sea level). The area is knows for a rich and varied mountain flora. The railway runs beside the river Driva (see photos above).
More mountains in the Dovrefjell
The Kongsvoll gives way to one of the larger mountain ranges in Norway, the Dovrefjell. The hightest point of the railway is at Hjerkinn, 1025 metres above sea level. The highest mountain, the Snøhetta, is even higher at 2286 metres. The Dovrefjell and the bogs at Fokstumyrene are rich in wildlife: mooose, reindeer and musk ox can be found here. The site was declared a national park as early as 1923.
Bogs in Dovrefjell
The train then follows the river Gudbrandsdalslågen down to Lillehammer and Lake Mjøsa. The Gudbrandsdal (dal
= valley) is a popular area for tourists who love nature and hiking. The river and its tributaries are fed from the glacier at Jotunheimen.
Lake Mjøsa is Norway's largest lake. It is 120 kilometres long (360 square km expanse) and the train follows its shore almost the entire way. Other than the fast running rivers which were busy thawing, most of the lake was still frozen, though I'm not sure if the ice still carried. It did on the lakes near Kirkenes, but that is a far way futher north.
Lake Mjøsa was still frozen
From Eidsvoll at the end of Lake Mjøsa it is about 70 km to the final destination: Oslo.
I hope you liked the little tour into spring in Norway. Looks like the snow in the UK is mostly gone now as well. There was no snow where I live, but some really
cold days. At least a bit of winter.
The railway cuts through basalt cliffs near Oslo
BTW, if everything goes according to plan, my spring tour in late April will lead me to Trier (a revisit; I'd last been there in 2006) and the Moselle valley as well as Luxembourg and Strasbourg. There should be some Roman villae
, a few castles, a big cathedral, and two interesting towns.
A thawing river
The information in this article comes from a little guidebook the NSB customer Service offered the guests of the railway: Dovrebanen Oslo - Trondheim - I pilegrimens fotspor, 2002.
The Architecture of Scarborough Castle
After the tour through the earlier and later history of Scarborough Castle, let's have a closer look at some of the architectural features.
The barbican seen from the viewing platform;
the double D-shaped outer gate is to the left, the first bridge to the right
Since the castle is situated on a headland with steep cliffs (about 90 metres / 300 feet high) on three sides, there was only the landward side which needed additional protection. A double ditch was cut and curtain walls put up; the remains of the present ones date mostly from the 12th and early 13th centuries. The entrance was defended by a gatehouse with a double D-shaped tower on the land side, as well as two drawbridges (which today have been rebuilt in stone) and a walled-in walkway. There likely had been a portcullis, too.
Tower protecting the barbican bridge
The barbican, which is first mentioned in a source from 1175, has been altered considerably during the history of the castle. The tower protecting the walkway between outer gate and castle gate was built by King Henry III in 1243, for example. You can see the different stones: ashlar for the filling, and cut stones for the shell.
One of the wall towers seen from the outside
The curtain walls were futher protected by towers; 12 in all, which were added at different times. The towers along the inner bailey were hollow, allowing the insertion of two floors - with arrow slits - while the towers further toward the sea were solid with battlements on the top.
Interior of one of King John's towers
Several towers were added by King John; those are D-shaped, a 'modern' design for England at the time where most towers were still suqare. One of the towers in the inner bailey - albeit no longer standing to its full height - holds a viewing platform for the visitors of the castle which gives a fine view over the landward defenses.
King John's chambers with the keep in the background
King John also build what is refered to as King John's Chambers or Mosdale Hall; a two storeyed hall built against the townside curtain wall in the outer bailey. Only the basement survives today. The upper storey would have housed the royal appartments and maybe a chapel as well; the rooms were heated by fireplaces. The basement storey consisted of a hall and smaller chambers which probably were used by the household officials. The staircase was located in a tower adjacent the main building.
King John's Chambers aka Mosdale House, interior
The building was still in use at the time of King Henry III in the 1260ies. A document from the time of King Edward III says the Queen's chambers were located in the building (1361).
But the hall fell into ruins in the 16th century. It was briefly reused as barracks during WW1 when brick buildings were put up inside the remains, but those were destroyed and dismantled after the war.
Outer curtain wall seen from above, with the remains of Mosdale Hall
The inner bailey was once protected by its own curtain wall and ditch that separated it from the outer bailey, with two gates for access. Remains of wall and ditch
can still be seen. Today, only the keep survives, but at the time of King Henry II the inner bailey included several more domestic buildings. Some of the stones in King John's Chambers were reused from the remains of those buildings which must have fallen into decay at an early stage.
The inner curtain walls
The rectangular keep, even in its ruinous state, still dominates the castle and appears on several of the photos I added in my prior posts. King Henry II put it on the highest spot of the headland where one could overlook the town and approach to the castle. The keep was built some time between 1159 and 1169; it was about 27 metres (90ft.) high, with walls that were up to 3.5 m (12ft.) thick.
King Henry's Norman keep, inside
The keep was erected on a sloping stone base and consisted of a basement and two additional storeys; the access was by a door in the first floor. The original staircase was housed in a tower, a forebuilding, which had two floors that did not correspond to the storeys of the main keep.
Originally, each corner of the keep proper had a turret overlooking the battlements which made it look even taller. Those battlements were higher than the countersunk roof of the quarters inside the walls (1). Countersunk roofs were rather common in Norman keeps; the fake walls hid the level of the actual roof in case of bombardements during a siege.
Interior of the keep, different angle
The present level of access is above the basement from where one can see the remains of the walls and window openings, as well as a fireplace. Some of the windows have scuncheon seats as you can see in the photo above (the uppermost window with the double arch).
Both first and second floor were divided into two rooms along the east-west range. Those walls contained one great arch on the first and three smaller ones on the second floor. Traces of those partition walls remain as well (see the first of the photos of the keep's interior here). The staircase, and latrines on both floors were hiding in the thick walls.
Another shot of the keep from the inside
The basement was used for storage. The first floor contained the great hall which was semi-separated by the arch. The chapel was a few stairs above hall level in the forebuilding. The second storey with the two rooms may have provided living quarters for the king, with the first room directly accessed from the staircase serving as a more official reception room and the second as his private quarters
The keep likely served as place for grand events during the entire Middle Ages even after King John built the living quarters at Mosdale Hall.
Barbican wall with merlons, Henry's Tower (middle),
and curtain walls seen from outside
1) It has formerly been assumed that there was an additonal storey, since there are traces of windows in the north wall, but any support for another floor is missing, as are fireplaces and hints to partition walls.
John A.A. Goodall: Scarborough Castle; English Heritage Guidebook, 2010
Scarborough Castle, Part 2 - From Civil War Fortress to Tourist Attraction
Ths is the second part about the history of Scarborough Castle. After James I (James IV in Scotland) ascended the throne in 1603, there was no longer any danger of an invasion from the north, therefore King James parcelled out a number of northern English castles to private owners. Scarborough was bought by a prominent local family, the Thompsons. Since it was no longer used as fortress, the defenses were no longer kept up.
Scarborough Castle, view from the barbican to the keep in the mist
But the castle must still have been in a decent shape, because it played a role again in the Civil War (1642-1651). At the time, a local gentleman named Sir Hugh Cholmley commanded the castle (1). He had been commissioned by the Parlamentarians to raise a regiment, but eventually switched sides and defended Scarborough Castle for King Charles I after he had visited the king in York.
Hugh Cholmley repaired the fortifications and had a garrison of 700 Royalist soldiers (2) who held the castle, as well as the town and the harbour. It was the only port not under dominion of the Royalists, which made them pretty angry, especially since King Charles had his base in nearby York – not to mention the interception of the Parlamentarian supply ships. Even stout Puritans didn't like to go hungry.
The curtain wall leading to the sally port
King Charles lost the battle of Marston Moor in 1644, a defeat that strengthened the position of the Parlamentarians. They began to roll up the Royalist strongholds in the north, and in February 1648, Sir John Meldrum laid siege to the town of Scarborough which surrendered after three weeks, thus cutting off the supply lines for the Royalists. Sir Hugh Cholmley retreated to the castle. It followed five months of one of the bloodiest sieges of the Civil War. Sir Meldrum put a whopper of a cannon nicknamed Cannon Royal (and that for a Parlamentarian weapon) onto the rock west of the castle. It was able to fire 65 pound (about 30 kg) balls. One of those partly destroyed the Norman keep.
Tthe curtain walls were damaged badly and several bloody engagements between soldiers of both sides took place. Meldrum was killed in one of these. Cholmley's garrison suffered from lack of provisions, especially food and - at the end - gunpowder as well. His men died in the fights or of scruvy, so that he finally surrendered in July 1654.
The keep which was partly destroyed during the Civil War
But this was not the end of Scarborough's role in the Civil War. The walls were repaired by the Parlamentarians who used the castle as fortress under the governor Matthew Boynton. He followed the example of Cholmley and declared for King Charles - already imprisoned at that point - in July 1648, after his soldiers went unpaid. Though how the king should have payed them is beyond me.
This time the siege lasted until December when Boynton surrendered. The castle was ordered to be slighted, but the opposition from the town prevented such a drastic measure. King Charles was beheaded on January 30th, 1649, but the war would last another two years. Upon restoration of the monarchy in 1660, Scarborough Castle was returned to the Crown
The bridge between barbican and castle
The castle served as prison in the following years. One of the most famous prisoners was George Fox (1624-1691), founder of the 'Religious Society of Friends', today known as Quakers. He and his followers said that God was everywhere and anyone could preach, so an established church was not neccesary. They also would not take up arms or swear oaths. Small wonder that Fox made enemies among the authorities and was imprisoned several times (the time in Scarborough lasted from April 1665 to September 1666; his quarter was - according to his letters - cold and wet). Cromwell met with Fox in person and they got along rather well, but the Parliament under Charles II forbade the Quaker meetings and had many of them arrested. Fox spent several years traveling in the colonies, especially America. At his death, his religious movement had been firmly established despite all adversary (3).
The 18th century Master Gunner's House
The castle declined in the years to follows. During the last Jacobite Rising of 1754/46 - one of the attempts to regain the British throne for the Catholic Stuarts - some repair was made to the walls by the Hanoverian government, including the addition of three gun batteries. Barracks were constructed inside the remains of King John's Chambers. These would be in use into the mid-19th century. The Master Gunner's House was built at that time as well; the remains of the keep were used as powder magazine. But the castle saw no action during the Rising.
The castle was garrisoned again during the Napoleonic Wars to prevent a French landing in England.
Another angle of the curtain walls
In December 1916, Scarborough was attacked by two German warships, Derfflinger
and Von der Tann
, that fired some 500 shells into town and castle. 17 civilians were killed and more than 80 wounded. The castle keep and the barracks were damaged; the latter so badly that they were dismantled. The bombardment shocked the British public.
The castle seen from the harbour (on a sunny afternoon the next day)
Scarborough had become a 'spa' town already in the second half of the 17th century. The castle came into focus as tourist attraction during the second half of the 19th century when it was no longer used for military purposes. At that time, the foundations of the King's Hall were excavated.
In 1920 the castle came into the guardianship of the Ministry of Works. As the damanged barracks were dismantled, the remains of King John's Chambers were discovered, as well as the remains of the Roman signal station further seaward on the plateau. English Heritage took over the care for the castle in 1984.
Scarborough Castle is said to be haunted by three ghosts, no less, among them a Roman soldier. But despite the fog and the suitably spooky atmosphere, I didn't meet any of those.
Scarborough Castle veiled by the incoming evening fog
1) I could not find out what happened to the Thompson family who had bought the castle in 1603.
2) They had been raised to support the Parlamentarians, but only few left after Cholmley changed sides, though they were allowed to do so.
3) This is a very simplified summary of Fox's life, of course, and I admit that I know little about the details of the Quaker religion.
John A.A. Goodall: Scarborough Castle; English Heritage Guidebook, 2010
Scarborough Castle, Part 1 - From Roman Signal Station to Tudor Stronghold
After all those obscure German castles and geneaologies of German noble families I've been blogging about those last months - if I blogged at all - I'll be back to some British history and British castles. I still got a bunch of those in my photo archives from my travels to the UK. So here is Scarborough Castle for you - photographed on one of the few days of 'British weather' I've experienced during my travels: fog, drizzle, and an icy wind.
Scarborough Castle; the keep seen from the outer gate
The history of human settlement on the rock promontory overlooking the North Sea goes further back than the Roman signal station, but the late Bronze Age and Iron Age people left few architectural traces behind. An excavation done in the 1920 produced evidence for a hill fort which dates to 900-500 BC. Some pottery finds are even older (2100-1600 BC). There is an anchorage place beneath the promontory which may have attracted interest in the site at such an early time; and the promontory is protected by steep cliffs on three sides which makes it a suitable place for a hill fort.
Scarborough Castle seen from the north bay,
with the usual evening fog coming in
I've already presented the Roman signal station
via an interview with our Roman guide Aelius Rufus. The Anglo-Saxon chapel which was built partly into the remains of the signal station about 1000 AD, has been covered in that post as well.
The landside curtain wall seen from the town
There was a settlement on the south bay in the 10th century. It had been assumed to be a Viking foundation, but there is no proof for that. Snorri Sturluson's Heimskringla
tells about a skirmish at the site: shortly before the battle of Stamford Bridge, King Harald Harđráđa came from Norway via Orkney where he had gathered more men, to push his claim to the English throne after the death of Edward the Confessor. He wanted to secure the surrender of a place called Skarđaborg, but the inhabitants refused. So he had a big fire built on the promontory and threw brands down into the settlement until they gave up and 'ganga til handa Haraldi' (became his vassals). Harald then continued with his fleet up the Humber and landed in Riccall (1). He fell at the Battle of Stamford Bridge, together with his ally Tostig Godwinson. The victor, King Harold Godwinson, marched back south to meet his fate at Hastings.
While the details of the fight at Scarborough may be invented, and there is no archaeological evidence (which would be difficult to find anyway), I think the very existence of a settlement, including the geographically correct description, would not have been made up by Snorri Sturluson. It could have been an Anglo-Saxon foundation as well as a Viking one, though.
The curtain wall on the town side
The first castle on the promontory was built by William Count of Aumale. He was created Earl of York by King Stephan in 1138 after the victory at the Battle of the Standard
where he commanded a Norman force. The chronicler William of Newburgh says that Aumale built a tower, curtain wall, moat and chapel. The structure of the castle would likely have followed the Norman motte and bailey style.
But the Count of Aumale could not enjoy his castle for long. When King Henry II ascended the throne in 1154, he firmly reestablished the royal power and reclamied the royal lands which had been given to his supporters by King Stephen, who then often treated the fiefs as their own possession. At first, Aumale refused, but when King Henry II appeared before York with an army, he thought better of it and surrendered.
The - partly destroyed - keep of King Henry II
William Aumale was not the only great noble who initially caused problems; some other earls and Welsh marcher lords closed their - illegally built - castles against Henry as well, but the latter prevailed. It is amazing how fast the king moved his army which consisted mostly of mercenaries between the north and the Welsh border to put out those brushfires. Henry pursued a conciliartory course in those first years of his reign - those who surrendered would keep their titles; thus William of Aumale remained Earl of York (2).
Remains of the keep from the inside
Henry II turned Scarborough Castle into an important stronghold in the north. He knew about the frequent incursions of King David of Scots into England during King Stephan's reign, and while his grandson and successor Malcolm the Maiden was nothing like David, Scotland remained an uneasy neighbour.
Henry demolished some of Aumale's buildings and rebuilt them in much grander and stronger scale. The most impressive feature is the stone keep which looks formidable even today in its half ruined condition. It is placed on the highest point of the promontory, overlooking the town and the barbican, as well as the way up to the castle.
The settlement beneath the castle was given the title of Royal Borough in the mid-12th century.
The keep, upper floor
The architecture of the castle will get its own post, so here is just some basic information about the keep which was over 27 metres (90ft.) high, with walls 3.5 m (12ft.) thick. It had a basement and two storeys, as well as a countersunk roof which made it appear even taller. Attached was a forebuilding which housed a chapel.
Most of the construction work was going on between 1157 and 1169. Henry spent the considerable sum of about £ 680 on the castle - his annual income was about £ 10,000 which had to pay for a migrant royal household, mercenary armies, castle building and other venues.
There was an inner curtain wall and trench around the keep; traces of those still remain, but the buildings inside had been dismantled already during the time of King John.
Remains of the inner curtain wall and trench
King John spent even more money on the castle which served as stronghold against the northern barons: £ 2290 between 1202 - 1212. During his time, the invention of the trebuchet had changed the way of siege warfare; to defend the larger missiles thrown at higher angles, stronger and higher curtain walls were neccesary. John had the entire promontory surrounded with those, though only the ones on the land side still remain. During the baron's war at the end of John's reign, the castle was held for him by Geoffrey de Neville, but never besieged.
King John also built what is called King John's Chambers or Mosdale Hall, a building outside the former inner bailey which sat along the curtain wall. It was a two storey building with a large and a small room on each storey, each warmed by a fireplace. The rooms were still in use at the time of King Edward III.
Remains of King John's chamber block
John's son King Henry III also put some efforts in maintaining the castle, though he never spent time there himself. Henry also built the barbican with the two D-shaped towers. The barbican has been altered considerably during later times. A separate King's Hall was built at some point (it is mentioned in a survey from 1361), but only the foundations remain today.
The storms and saltwater spray from the sea made constant repairs neccesary. Severe storms carried away roofs (1237) and caused parts of the curtain wall to collapse (1241). Erosion of the seaward walls was also an issue. Nevertheless, Scarborough was considered one of the greatest royal fortresses in England at the time.
I suspect that even with fireplaces and at the peak of 13th century living standards, Scarborough Castle was not a comfortable place in bad weather. I for my part was glad I brought some hot tea along to warm myself up, and I love exploring castles.
King John's Chambers, interior
Edward I continued to use the castle; he held court there in 1275 and 1280, and used Scarborough Castle as prison for captives / hostages from his Welsh and Scottish campaigns - I could not find any details, but I don't think it involved hanging them in cages from the barbican towers. *wink*
There is an interesting tidbit: In 1304, Edward I made Isabella de Vesci, a member of the influential Beaumont family, constable of Bamburgh Castle (3). According to some sources, she was constable of Scarborough as well, though maybe later (under Edward II). It was a very unusual position for a woman at the time. If she got Scarborough after Gaveston's death, it would surely have pissed off the Lords Ordainer.
To make a complicated bit of history simple: The Lords Ordainer, led by the Earl of Lancaster, were a group of barons who wanted to curb the power of King Edward II. They forced him to follow a set of Ordinances or rules in 1311, which included the exile of Edward's favourite Piers Gaveston who the barons thought was too close to the king and endangered their own position. Not to mention that he gave them insulting nicknames.
Foundations of the king's hall
Gaveston was used to going into exile by then, it was the third time he left England (early November 1311). But he did not remain absent long, instead he returned in January 1312, probably to visit his wife who had just given birth to their daughter. King Edward II declared the judgement against Gaveston unlawful, restored his lands and made him governor of Scarborough Castle.
Gaveston began to fortify the castle, but during a stay in Newcastle he and the king were set upon by the barons and barely escaped; their baggage was taken, including a number of valuable jewels. Edward fled to York and Gaveston to Scarborough where he was soon besieged by the earls of Pembroke and Warenne. Gaveston had had no time to provision the garrison and thus accepted surrender under safe escort to York where they would negotiate with the king.
After a preliminary meeting in York, Gaveston was left in custody of the Earl of Pembroke who took Gaveston with him to Oxfordshire. One day, as Pembroke was absent, the Earl of Warwick used the chance, captured Gaveston and dragged him off to Warwick Castle where he was subjected to a mock trial led by Warwick and Lancaster. Piers Gaveston was then taken outside and beheaded on June 19th (4).
Whatever Edward II's failures as king and Gaveston's character, this was the deed of a niđing, not a nobleman. The Lords Ordainer lost some of their support over it; especially the Earl of Pembroke who rightfully considered his honour slighted by Warwick's action, turned into a stout ally of King Edward.
View from the keep to the curtain wall
Maintenance of the castle continued to be an issue; often only the absolute neccesary repairs would be done - royal treasuries were not unlimited. There may also have been an element of sabotage like the story about part of the curtain wall that collapsed into a cloud of sand in 1361. *cough* I'd have checked the houses in Scarborough for recent additions of stones.
Lord Henri de Percy who lived in the castle in the mid-14th century had a bakehouse, brewhouse and kitchen built in the inner bailey.
Inner bailey (part of the keep wall to the left)
During the Hundred Years War, Scarborough Castle played a role again in protecting the town which had become an important harbour for the wool trade. King Henry VI ordered major repairs in 1424, though I could not find out what exactly was done.
King Richard III stayed in the castle in 1484 while he assembled a fleet to fight the Tudors. In the end, it was not a fleet he lacked, but a horse; Richard fell at Bosworth August 22, 1485. The Tudor dynasty would rule England for the next generations.
View from the keep to the barbican
Scarborough came into focus again during the Pilgrimage of Grace. This was an uprising in Yorkshire against King Henry VIII's break with the Catholic Church, Thomas Cromwell's politics and the dissolution of the monasteries. It was led by Robert Aske, a lawyer from a well-connected Yorkshire family. Aske tried to take Scarborough which was defended by Sir Ralph Eure who held the castle with nothing but his household servants in October 1536. There was some damage by gunfire, but obviously minor. The rising failed and the leaders - including several lords and knights - were executed. Aske was hanged in chains from Clifford Tower
Scarborough proved attractive for another rebel: Thomas Stafford, grandson of the 3rd Duke of Buckingham who had been executed in 1521 during the reign of Henry VIII. Thomas Stafford did not like the idea of Queen Mary 'the Bloody' marrying Philipp II of Spain and thus securing a Catholic monarchy. He returned from exile in France (5), landed at Scarborough and took the castle obviously without any problems. But within six days, the Earl of Westmorland (whose mother was a daughter of the 3rd Duke of Buckingham) retook the castle; Thomas Stafford was beheaded for treason.
Way from the the castle down to the barbican
Queen Elisabeth established a garrison at Scarborough during the Northern Rising 1569. Several powerful nobles in northern England were Catholics and would have prefered Mary Queen of Scots (who already was prisoner in southern England) to Elisabeth. The rebellion failed, but the garrison remained until the political unification of England and Scotland under James I (IV) in 1603. More about the history of Scarborough Castle can be found in this post
Keep and curtain wall to the north, with the well in the foreground
1) The events are told in the Heimskringla, chapter 83, Orrosta viđ Skarđaborg. The Old Norse text can be found here (text page 502).
2) Fun fact aside: The title Earl of York was only created twice, once for William of Aumale (1138-1179) and again for Otto, son of Heinrich the Lion, who was made Earl of York by King Richard in 1190. The title became defunct with his death in 1218.
3) Isabella had married John de Vesci of Alnwick who already died in 1289. She was lady-of-honour of Edward's wife Eleanor of Castle and would remain faithful to King Edward II and Queen Isabella against the Lords Ordainer. She later sided with Queen Isabella against Edward II, but abandoned that alliance when Isabella and Roger Mortimer snatched some Beaumont lands. Kathryn Warner only mentions her being governor of Bamburgh Castle, but it is not impossible that Isabella de Vesci was governor of Scarborough Castle as well. Edward II confirmed her for Bamburgh in 1311, and he may have given her Scarborough after Gaveston's death.
4) More details can be found on Anerje's blog.
5) It was actually the second rebellion in which Thomas Stafford was involved; he had joined the - failed - one of Thomas Wyatt in 1554 and escaped to France.
Frank Barlow: The Feudal Kingdom of England 1042-1216. 5th edition, Edinburgh 1999
Robert Bartlett: England Under the Norman and Angevin Kings 1075-1225. 5th edition, Oxford University Press, 2003
John A.A. Goodall: Scarborough Castle; English Heritage Guidebook, 2010
A Fake Death and a Secret Mistress - The Stauffenburg near Seesen / Harz
Today I'll show you another rather obscure castle in my surroundings: the Stauffenburg near Seesen in the Harz mountain range (1). The castle may have been built by a 'Gerberdus of Stouphenburch', a member or vassal - the sources are not clear about that - of the family of the Counts of Katlenburg who served as imperial reeves. Unfortunately, I must rely on online sources and thus got two contradictory dates for the first mention of the Stauffenberg family: 1050 or 1154. The 1154 date seems more likely since it is connected with a feudal transaction involving Duke Heinrich of Saxony, a rather well documented time. But it is likely that a castle was built much earlier, maybe around 1050. The castle protected the ore mines in the surroundings and the road to Nordhausen.
Stauffenburg, remains of the keep seen from the bailey
The nearby village is called Gittelde. It was in possession of the Billung family in 950, but may go back to an Iron Age Germanic settlement. The Billung family were important vassals of the Ottonian emperors; Margrave Hermann von Billung was administrator (procurator regis
) in Germany for Otto I the Great when the latter was staying in Italy in 961-966 (2). The Counts of Katlenburg were likely vassals of the Billung family, or even related by marriage. They died out in the male line in 1130.
Remains of the main gate with one of the gate towers and curtain wall
The castle fell to Duke Heinrich the Lion of Saxony, but the Stauffenburg family, now ministeriales
of the duke (3) still held the castle for him. Duke Heinrich pawned out the castle, and there are some stories about it becoming a stronghold of robbers which I could not confirm. That sort of legend gets attached to a lot of castles.
After Heinrich fell from power in 1180, the castle came into possession of the emperor Friedrich Barbarossa. When Heinrich returned from exile in 1189 and regained the former allodial possessions of his family, the Stauffenburg obviously was one of the contested places; there was a long legal shuffle between the emperor, the Welfen, and the archbishop of Magdeburg, though I could not figure out what rights the latter had to the castle. The emperor could at least claim the castle to have been built on former imperial land. It gets even more interesting since the emperor 1209-1218 was Otto IV, of the Welfen family. His successor was Friedrich II of Staufen. The quarrels shows that the castle must have been an important place in the late 12th to 13th century.
Remains of the curtain walls in the inner bailey
The Imperial Steward Gunzelin of Wolfenbüttel who held the castle for some time, managed to get along with both Otto IV and Friedrich II. His father had been a vassal of Duke Heinrich the Lion in the rank of ministeriales
, but Gunzelin rose to the rank of higher nobility and expanded his possession to include allodial lands around Wolfenbüttel. The Stauffenburg was one of his responsibilites, and one of his younger sons would later take the name from it: 'Guncelinus de Stoyphonborg' (in 1254).
The gate tower seen from above
The Stauffenburg finally came into uncontested possession of the Welfen family in 1429. It served as widow's seat of Duchess Elisabeth of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel 1503-1522. The castle must have been at the height of comfort for that time, since a dowager duchess would likely not live in a draughty ruin with leaky roofs.
Elisabeth, born 1434, was the daughter of Count Botho of Stolberg
; she was betrothed to Duke Wilhelm II of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel - one of the several branches of the Welfen family (4) - already as child and moved with him to Göttingen in 1454. During her time in the Stauffenburg she promoted the advancement of mining techniques for silver and iron in the mountains of the area. She was a busy old lady, and one can imagine the castle must have been a lively place in those years.
The next tidbit of history connected with the Stauffenburg involves Duke Heinrich II 'the Younger' of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1489-1568; 5). He ruled at a time when the Reformation had split Germany into Catholic and Reformed / Lutheran principalities and duchies. Duke Heinrich was a stout Catholic - the last of the Welfen to remain so; his surviving son Julius would join the Reformation as other branches of the family had already done. Heinrich got involved in various conflicts with the Schmalkaldic League, a military alliance of Lutheran princes, led by the landgrave of Hessia and the prince elector of Saxony. But Heinrich had the support of the emperor Karl (Charles) V.
The Schmalkaldic League conquered Heinrich's lands in 1342. Heinrich fled to Bavaria, returned with an army, but was taken prisoner by Hessian troops in 1545. When Emperor Karl V and his Catholic allies, including forces from Spain, won the Battle of Mühlberg in 1547, Heinrich finally was released from captivity and restored to his duchy.
But what gained him the nickname Wild Hal (der wilde Heinz) were not his wars against Protestant Princes; it was his affair with Eva von Trott.
Zwinger between keep (left) and gate tower (right)
Eva von Trott was a member of the Hessian noble family Trott zu Solz. She came to Wolfenbüttel as the duchess' maid of honour in 1522, aged sixteen. Duchess Maria of Württemberg was Heinrich's first wife with whom he had eleven children.
But Wild Hal was more busy than that. Two years after her arrival Eva was pregnant by the duke. She said she wanted to visit her family, but traveled to the Stauffenburg instead where she delivered a boy. The kid was raised by trusted servants of Duke Heinrich. That was repeated two more times until pretty much everyone got suspicious. Both the duchess and Eva's family pressured Heinrich into ending the affair, and Maria sent the girl away. Eva came as far as Gandersheim chapter where she died of the plague and was duly buried.
But it was a ruse. A sculptor had carved a likeness of Eva's head which was attached to a straw puppet dressed in Eva's fine clothes. I suppose a few people were bribed into not looking too closely at the body in the sarcophagus. The girl herself dressed up as peasant and fled to the Stauffenburg where she lived from 1532 to 1541. Duke Heinrich liked the hunt near the castle and Eva got seven more children. To keep people from prying around, some scary ghost stories were told, including visions of a woman in a white shroud, and so Eva lived in the castle with her children and some trusted servants. Many of the buildings have been lost today, but they had a lot more living space than the remaining keep and gate house.
Remains of the curtain walls in the inner bailey, different angle
Duchess Maria died in 1541, but a marriage of Heinrich with Eva was not possible due to class distinction. When their affair and her survival became publicily know at the diet of Regensburg, and the Schmalkaldic League drove Heinrich from his lands, Eva fled the Stauffenburg in turn. Here whereabouts are difficult to trace. She spent some time in Halberstadt and in various castles. Duke Heinrich finally found her a place in the chapter of Hildesheim in 1558; she died there in 1567.
Heinrich obtained the title 'of Kirchberg' for his surviving children with Eva. He married again in 1556: Zofia Jagiellonka, the daughter of King Zygmunt (Sigismund) I of Poland.
More remains of curtain walls
The Stauffenburg was a widow's seat again 1569-1580 when the eldest daugher of Duke Heinrich, Margaretha of Münsterberg, lived there. Margaretha had been married to the Silesian Duke Johann of Münsterberg, who died after four years of a marriage which remained childless. She turned the castle into a hospital and spent her time caring for the poor. The castle must have been a much different place then than thirty years earlier when children played in the yard during Eva's time.
Another scandal took place in 1587. The Protestant abbess of Gandersheim chapter, Margarethe of Warberg, spent the rest of her - rather short - life as prisoner in the castle. It is said that she had murdered her baby, the result of an illicit affair (6).
Curtain walls on the cliff side
The Stauffenburg was used seat of the administration office and prison of the Welfen dukes since 1600. 1713 the office was moved to the domain in the valley and the castle lost its importance. It was used as quarry, like so many defunct castles in Germany.
The keep and one of the towers have been restored to the first floor level during renovation work, and the remaining parts of the castle are secured against further decay, but the place is one of the more obscure castles today, with only a few visitors even on a nice, warm autumn day.
Different angle of gate tower and curtain wall
An old hollow way leads to the steep-sided promontory on which the Stauffenburg is situated. The upper part of the way is framed by earthen walls which may have been part of the outer defenses. A trench which cut the promontory off the ridge once separated the way from the gate, but it has long been filled in. Remains can be seen in some places, though. The entire castle measured about 200x90 metres, the inner bailey 85x30 metres.
The gate house with its flanking tower has been partly reconstructed. The remains are still impressive. Foundations of another tower remain, as do considerable bits of curtain walls, though not up to their original heigth. Several more buidings, probably some in half timbered style, must have framed the large inner bailey.
Foundations of a round tower
The partly reconstruced keep was not particularly large, it measured 7x7 metres. Main living quarters of the castle was likely a great hall which has been lost when the stones from the castle were used to build the domain in Gittelde. I could not find any information about the original heigth of the keep; maybe it can no longer be estimated. The keep has a cellar which was used as prison (though not in case of the abbess Mathilde who was allowed to move around within the confines of the walls).
1) The castle is not connected with the House of Staufen / Hohenstaufen which provided Germany with a dynasty of kings.
2) The story that the Stauffenburg was a favourite castle of Otto's father, King Heinrich I 'the Fowler' († 936), is a legend. The biography by Wolfgang Giese (Darmstadt 2008) doesn't mention either Gittelde or the Stauffenburg. We can't even be sure that Hermann Billung ever stayed in Gittelde; such settlements were mostly a source of income.
3) If they were ministeriales, the Stauffenberg were likely vassals of the counts of Katlenburg and not a branch of the family, who were freeborn nobility.
4) More about the various branches of the Welfen family can be found here
5) In English research literature he is also known as Henry V of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.
6) Her case is less well documented and subject to legend; the only proven fact is her captivity in the Stauffenburg.
View from the Stauffenburg
And finally a pretty view from the castle. One can imagine that dowager duchess Elisabeth stood here wondering how much ore was to be found in yonder mountains, that the unhappy abbess Margarethe tried to glimpse the tower of the church in Gittelde where she was eventually allowed to visit and pray, and Eva looked out for her lover Heinrich.